I had to make a sample of Mine Songs for an upcoming press feature.

In this you can hear sounds from Duluth: the container at the old Duluth Works site (where US Steel was located), a distant train running from the CN docks to the Iron Range, the sound of cars on the aerial lift bridge (that allows laker ships to access the ore docks), and the engine of a BNSF train (which hauls to Superior, WI). Duluth was/is obviously very important to the iron ore/steel industry, even with the dissolution of the steel plant here.


Duluth and the Iron Range have been economically connected since the beginning of the iron ore industry. Railways bring ore from the Mesabi range to Duluth, and limestone from Duluth ships to the iron ore plants. Limestone is used (as well as clay) as a binding agent to make taconite pellets. Until 2004, the rail was run by Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway. It was purchased by Canadian National (CN), but the DMIR logo still graces the sides of many cars. Have a look and listen to my early explorations of the railway and loading docks in Duluth.


Maps are beautiful and artistic, practical and imaginative. They are also instructional, showing historical changes. I have encountered lots of maps recently, as I try to understand the changing landscape of the Iron Range. It is impossible, that task. On a smaller scale, I am only trying to identify a few of my favorite pit lakes - the ‘exhausted’ or abandoned cavities that have filled with water after anything deemed valuable was removed.

Some of my favorite map words:


(These are USGA topographic maps, and maps from ‘Mesabi Range Maps’ prepared by Great Northern Iron Ore Properties. If you’d like more info, visit the resources page.)


Recorded in an old sample processing laboratory that Lerch Brothers built around 1917.

“It served many the local natural ore mines like the Leonidas, Fault, Hull- Nelson, Alice, Spruce, Adams, Dorr, and Cloquet Annex. Lerch Brothers had these facilities all along the Iron Range, and in Superior, Wis. so they were close to the products they were handling, just like the resident locations were built close to the mines since transportation was always a problem.  This facility operated until around 1961-62. By then the natural ore was running out and several of the lab buildings along the range were abandoned and the operations moved to the Hibbing facility as that was the Northern Headquarters for the company. Rhude and Fryberger evidently purchased the property around 1966 for the same use. They have a long history of cleaning up the natural ore deposits of old mines, with rather good profitability, some of their more productive operations have carried on for over 25 years at individual locations.”

Emailed to me by my Uncle Bill in September 2018.